怎么样编写英文科学和技术杂谈

想要撰写一篇出色的英文科研随笔,对于非匈牙利(Magyarország)语母语的科研工小编而言并非一件不难的作业。有时候能或不能投到更高分的笔记刊物与写作水平也紧密。本文通过整治Cell
Research编辑姜姝姝的讲座内容,简单介绍如何编写一篇杰出的英文科研杂文。

想要写一篇卓绝的英文科研杂文,就要先精晓什么是脍炙人口的诗歌什么不是。
编纂不欣赏看看的稿子类型:
(1)逻辑混乱的篇章
(2)用语不当夸大其词或发布有误
(3)语法和其余错误百出

常见而言一篇科研杂文包罗以下部分:
Title
Abstract
Introduction
Results
Discussion
Materials and Methods
Acknowledgements

Title

题目是编写或者阅读者首先看到的,由此取一个好标题至关主要。
俺们要用最少的单词概括出小说的宗旨,对标题有以下三点必要:
1.简洁,完整,易懂
2.防止出现化学式或特殊符号
3.日常采用以下三种样式:短语式、句子式和主副式,比如:
短语式:
Cyro-EM structure of human DNA-PK holoenzyme
A vital sugar code for ricin toxicity
句子式:
Suppression of MAPK11 or HIPK3 reduces mutant Huntingtin level in
Huntington’s disease models
Intermittent fasting promotes adipose thermogenesis and metabolic
homeostasis via VEGF-mediated alternative activation of macrophage
主副式:
Class I histone deacetylases are major histone decrotonylases: evidecnce
for critical and broad function of histone crotonylation in
transcription

Abstract

Abstract的目标是为了帮扶读者很快明白文章的内容。
有以下多少个须求:
1.独立性和完整性
可以独自存在并可以传达全文宗旨理想
2.简洁、准确、逻辑性强
因为Abstract有字数限制,大家务必用短短几句话表明全文的大旨境想,因而每一个单词和语句都要密切推敲
3.试样符合期刊的正规化
以发表在Cell Research 的‘5-Hydroxymethylcytosine signatures in cell-free
DNA provide information about tumor types and stages’为例:

image.png

格林:课题背景
高亮:结果(可以不难提实验艺术)
红线:计算(可以适量展望进步)

Introduction

1.介绍本文探讨领域的上扬景观(mini-review)
介绍内容自然是与本文主线最相关的商讨背景。主要的点一定要涉及到。细节处可以在文中提及时再介绍。
2.通过座谈本切磋领域为杀鸡取蛋的标题(包含自己后边发表随想未缓解的难题),自然过渡到介绍你的试行目标和紧要性。
3.在最后简单介绍本研讨所做的内容和结论。
注意:
一定要在有限的字数内周全介绍已知不易背景,但是不要过于铺开,只要围绕小说主线器重介绍相关的背景即可。

Materials and Methods

相对而言那是一篇文章最自在的有些,可是此部分也是最容易犯错的有的。寻常方法材料有些的语法检查最不过细,常见难题概括:时态、单复数、主动被动语态

Results

1.逻辑很重大,有系统的叙述故事。注意段与段间的逻辑。可以在每一局部的小结果的开业写一些承上启下的语句以三番五次段落。

  1. 每一段表达一个见解。在每段中也要有逻辑(时间种种,从包蕴到现实的顺序,因果顺序),可以接纳平行的句式和卓有功效的连接词。先导和尾声很主要,在结尾处要做令人回忆深入的强调。
    3.对试验结果举办准确的叙说。如果语言不当会招致误会。估算的结果应该选择部分意味推测、可能的修饰词语。
    4.对实验结果举行合理的计算和表明。
    5.假若稿子很多次运用同一品种实验,在首先次介绍时可详细一些,让读者更便于精通,而其后的介绍可以简简单单些。
    6.
    在叙述实验操作和试验结果时用过去时,在写结论和诱导时用后天时。

叙述实验方法和结果的常用句式:
We found ……
We have noticed that……
We characterized ……
Our analysis showed ……
In order to ……, we ……
We next detected ……
After that, we examined ……
相比连接的常用句式:
In Contrast ……
Compared with ……
Consistent with ……
In line with……
Importantly ……
Interestingly ……
Of note ……
In addition ……
结论和启示时的常用句式:
In conclusion ……
These results suggest that ……
The data indicate that ……
These data demonstrate that ……
Taken together, these results provide further evidence that ……

Discussion

座谈是对峙难写的部分,探究不是对结果粗略的罗列,而是对结果进行更进一步深切的座谈:
你的探究解决了世界中如何难点和猜疑
您的钻研提议了如何新的或者
事后应该怎么着去进一步商讨等
相似,还足以在结尾处再下结论一下协调的探讨成果

1976年,威尔iam Zinsser在《On Writing Well》提议优质创作的三条件:

“The secret of good writing is to strip every sentences to its
cleanest components. Every word that serves no function, every long
word that could be a short word, every adverb that carries the same
meaning that’s already in the verb, every passive construction that
leaves the reader unsure of who is doing what-these are the thousand
and one adulterants that weaken the strength of a sentence. And they
usually occur in proportion to the education and rank.”
1.多用主动态(主语+谓语+宾语)
2.多用动词,采取更纯粹的动词。突出动词,尽量不要把动词变为名词。
3.简单语言

用主动态

被动态包罗:宾语+谓语+主语,或宾语+谓语
eg:
Upon the chemical treatment, the activation of XX signaling pathway
could be observed.
可以修改为:
We could observe the activation of XX signaling pathway upon the
chemical treatment.

General dysfunction of the immune system has been suggested in both
mouse and human studies.
可以修改为:
Both mouse and human studies suggested that XX (disease) cause general
dysfunction of the immune system.

动词

  1. 挑选更确切的动词
    report approximately 可以用estimate替代
  2. 找个正规网赌平台,少用to be (am, is, are, be, been, was, were)
  3. 少把动词名词化
    provide explanation ->explain
    offer confirmation of ->confirm
    report the identification of ->identify
    the recruitment of A by B to initiate ->B recruits A to
    initiate
    2mM sodium hydroxide rapidly induced XX cytoplasmic
    translocation->
    2mM sodium hydroxide rapidly induced XX to translocate into the
    cytoplasmic
  4. 要将根本的动词靠近主语
    One study of 120 breast cancer patients who received XX treatment in
    North America found that the 15-year survival rate is low.
    ->One study found that, of 120 breast cancer patients who
    received XX treatment in North America, the 15-year survival rate is
    low.

从简语言的注意事项

1.不要求介绍性短语。例如:as it is published; as it is known

2.去掉没有意思的词。例如: important

3.啰嗦的词简化,把精力花在重中之重的语句上
a majority of ->most
a number of ->many
all four of the ->the four
due to the fact that ->because
give rise to ->cause

4.双重意义的词或句子用一个
limit condition, output performance

5.剪掉一部分副词:very, really, quite

6.用肯定语气
not harmful ->safe
does not have ->lacks
not correct ->wrong
be not the result of A but B ->reflect B rather than A

7.并格外用there is/are
There are many ways in which we can handle this case.
->We can handle this case in many ways.

The data suggest there is an association between temperature and crop
diseases.
->The data suggest an association between temperature and crop
diseases.

It is likely that there exists functional redundancy among XX
proteins.
->It is likely that functional redundancy among XX proteins exists.

8.用标点符号来改变句式,精简语言
分集团(semicolon): 连接四个单身的从句。
圆括号(parenthesis):
插足解释或局地想法,即使没有这一部分句子也应有是单身的。
冒号(Colon):
分隔能力弱于分号,比破折号要正规。用于列举,引用,举例,首个从句是第三个从句的延长。
破折号(dash): 表示强调,解释或概念。留给紧要的用处。

在英文作文中我们常犯的题目:
1.科学措辞的准确性
2.时态荒谬(描述实验进度结果时用过去式,总计实验结果时用现在时)
3.单复数错误
4.’a’,’an’,’the’的利用不当
5.相比较不对等:
The root length of XX mutant is shorter than wild type rice.
The root length of XXmutant is shorter than that of wild type
rice.
6.用词或句式单一
7.语序难点
8.句子过长
9.运用口语化用词

末段,那么大家到底要怎么着进步写作技能呢?
多看、多读、多写、多总结

可以尝尝每一回翻阅完杂谈后用两三句话概括或臧否小说的内容
仍可以将读过文章中的经典句式、好词摘录下来

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